OXFORD- EuropaWire- Oxford University researchers have discovered what causes a switch to flip in our brains and wake us up. The discovery, published in the journal Nature, brings us closer to understanding the mystery of sleep.
Sleep is governed by two systems—the circadian clock and the sleep homeostat. While the circadian clock is quite well understood, very little is known about the sleep homeostat.
Professor Gero Miesenböck, in whose laboratory the new research was conducted, explained: ‘The circadian clock allows us to anticipate predictable changes in our environment that are caused by the Earth’s rotation. As such, it makes sure we do our sleeping when it hurts us least, but it doesn’t speak to the mystery of why we need to sleep in the first place.
‘That explanation will likely come from understanding the second controller—called the sleep homeostat. The homeostat measures something—and we don’t know what that something is—that happens in our brains while we are awake, and when that something hits a certain ceiling, we go to sleep. The system is reset during sleep, and the cycle begins anew when we wake up.’
The team studied the sleep homeostat in the brain of fruit flies—the animal that also provided the first insights into circadian timekeeping, some 45 years ago. Each fly has around two dozen sleep-control neurons, brain cells that are also found in other animals and believed to exist in people. These neurons convey the output of the sleep homeostat: If the neurons are electrically active, the fly is asleep, and when they are silent, the fly is awake.
To switch the neurons the team relied on a technique called optogenetics, discovered by Miesenböck in 2002, in which pulses of light are used to switch on and off the activity of brain cells. In the current work, optogenetics was used to stimulate the production of the messenger chemical dopamine.
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